The word used in the present day is internet. Without which a lonely moment cannot be imagined. The Internet involves all kinds of activities, including reading books, watching videos, and even playing video games. So the question that comes to your mind is how does the internet work? Don't worry today I will tell you in detail about how the internet works.
The article you are viewing on your smartphone or computer has to travel thousands of kilometers to get to your phone or computer. Because the data in this article was on a server thousands of kilometers away. For ease of understanding, suppose the article you are viewing is on a server. Where you read this article is stored in a data center. Based on your request, thousands of kilometers have come to us in a matter of seconds.
Let's find out how the internet works.
Before we know how the Internet works, we need to understand how this data traveled thousands of kilometers to your mobile phone. This tune is stored in a data center that is thousands of kilometers away from you. But how did this tune reach your phone in just a few seconds?
The easiest way to get this article to your phone is to use Satellite. A signal can be sent to a satellite with the help of an antenna in the data center and then that signal can be transmitted from the satellite to one of the towers near you and from that tower to your computer. This is the easiest way. But even if it is simple, this method is not so reliable.
But let's find out why data transfer with satellite is not so reliable?
If the satellite is 22,000 miles above the Earth's equator to transmit data in this way, it will have to travel 44,000 miles if the data translation is to succeed. Because that signal has to go up to the satellite and come back again. Which will be double the time. There are also other issues that make internet connection via satellite very expensive and problematic. Although internet connection is provided through satellite, it is very expensive. The internet we use is basically made up of optical fiber cable only.
If data transmission is arranged with satellite, it will be much slower to send and receive data to cover such a long distance. More specifically, it will take a lot of time. As a result, the satellite will not be able to run the applications currently used by the Internet. Suppose you play a game on a mobile phone, then think how much of a problem it can be if the ping is too much. We do it but can't play.
So we realized that this tune did not come to your phone so quickly with the hope of playing video games on your phone and low ping, but this information came to you through some other means. You may think that you are using a wireless device, which is a mobile phone and has no cable connection. So how did all this information come to your phone other than the satellite. All this work is done with the help of fiber optic cable networks spread all over the world. Which connects the data center and your phone to the Internet.
How is the fiber optical cable doing?
Your phone may be connected to two things. One is a cellular network or a WiFi router. When browsing the internet on the phone, it is always wireless. But somewhere in between, your connection has to be transmitted through that fiber optic cable network. The information you send goes through the cellular network or router through the optical fiber to the specific server where you sent the request. As you are currently browsing the internet and watching my tune, it is stored in a data center. It is saved on an SSD or HDD on the server.
The information that is stored on the server is the internal memory of a server. And the server is a very large powerful computer, whose job is to provide you with this content and other information. Moreover, other content that is stored in that server, this server will provide you with everything you request. It must have your data on that server.
Now the question is how to send this tune to your phone with the help of fiber optic cable network, why not go to any other phone? Let's see how it is.
An idea must be clear before anything else can be understood. That is the IP address. Every device that is connected to the Internet can be a phone or a laptop or any other device. Each of them has an IP address, even the server and the IP address. These IP addresses are unique. Which does not match one another with any digital device. You can compare it with your home address. When a letter is sent to you, you have to write your home address in that letter. And after seeing that address, the postmaster delivered the letter to your house.
The IP address works exactly the same way. So the server has an IP address in the same way that your device has an IP address. If you want to access a server, you need to know the IP address of that server. However, there are so many websites on the internet that it is not possible for ordinary people to remember the addresses of all these websites. Because IP addresses are very long and complex numbers. And the domain name is used to solve this problem. For example: youtube.com, facebook.com etc. These are very easy for ordinary people to remember.
If we want to access any website, we have to access it with the help of domain name, not with IP address. Although the website can be accessed with the IP address. However, it is very difficult to remember the IP address of some websites. Now if I type youtube.com then how can the internet understand which IP address to go to?
There is an additional server for this. Which is DNS server i.e. domain name system server. Here is all the information you need to take to any IP address for any domain name request. All domain names are saved on the DNS server. In the old days, such phonebooks were used. If you knew the name of a person the day before but did not know the phone number. Then you could get that person's phone number on the phone. This is what DNS servers and the Internet do. Here it is said that you have to go to a web address for an IP address.
When you enter a domain name into a browser, that information is converted to digital binary and goes to the DNS server. That name is matched with all the domain names there. If any of these names match, then the IP address is collected. Now the browser sends a request to that server with that IP address. Then the information from that server is sent to that device again with optical fiber through the light in optical fiber as per the demand. The information taken from the server moves at the speed of light to any fiber landing station in the country. From there it goes through the fiber again to the tower of the cellular network and from the ISP to the router if the broadband internet. That information travels from mobile towers and routers to our phones through microwave waves.
The nature of taking and giving information is exactly the same. All of this happens at the speed of light, so time seems short. But in the meantime, your information has come a long way.
Let's look at the simple way from the beginning again. You typed the address of a website and entered. Your browser will then send a request to the DNS server to find out what the IP address of the website you searched for is. Then when your browser gets the IP address, a request goes directly to the data center from the browser. The IP address under the domain name is on the server of that website.
Then the data transfer starts when the server receives your request. Then that data from everyone is converted to digital information and fiber optic cable starts running at the speed of light.
These lights sometimes have to travel thousands of kilometers, sometimes over a mountainous area and sometimes over the sea floor. That means wherever he has been given the fiber cable. There are very few companies in the world that operate and oversee this fiber cable network. The wires of this fiber cable are our only means of running high speed internet.
The seabed fiber cables connect to different parts of the world and go straight to your home, where they are connected to a router. The light signal in the router is converted into an electrical signal. After which this information is transferred from that router to your computer or mobile with the help of an internet cable.
But if you watch this tune with the help of cellular data or mobile data, then the question may also be how it came with the help of that fiber optic cable. In fact, there is a fiber optic cable connected to the tower from which your phone is receiving this signal. From where the light signal is converted to electromagnetic wave and reaches your mobile phone.
This article did not come to your computer like this. When you sent a request to the server to view this airticle, it was sent to the server in several small packets to reach your phone in different ways. And where in each packet is that data to be delivered and with it was this information and how to present that small data to us again. Systems that are input to computers and servers.
We can easily watch HD quality and even 4K quality videos on our phone or computer with one click. But the technology behind it is really amazing.
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