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 Hi friends!

Friends, today I decided to continue to make publications from the magazine "Around the world". Historical articles are very interesting and informative. I would like to leave them for future generations to read. It is very interesting to read the history of the countries that took place 40-50 years ago. It was not so long ago and it is a short history of the formation of many countries.  The magazine "Around the world" is not translated into English. My goal is only historical articles from the 1960s. Russian journalists perfectly described the events in the world. Who is interested, join the reading;). Photos from the magazine will be taken by me. At the bottom there will always be a link to the official website "Around the world" in Russian. Therefore, Russian speakers can always read interesting stories from the past.

It will be an interesting journey into the history of various events, discoveries and inventions. Sometimes I will publish funny stories that are always at the end of the magazine. For me, the magazine "Around the world" and old articles is a historical adventure and a fascinating journey into the past.

Today we will see an article about the carnival in Angola. Angola is on the 4th place in the world in the number of diamonds mined


There's a carnival in Luanda. For several days, the city lives in the rhythm of different voices, on the streets of either the fair, or a circus performance. Succumbing to the General atmosphere of the carnival "Festa", we all have fun, feel involved in this celebration.
The carnival procession, born on the workers ' outskirts of Luanda, flows along the infinitely long city embankment named after the Fourth of February. And elegant seaside houses, and the ocean itself — as scenery. Carnival groups are an endless stream. Ahead of each — musical ensemble.
Carnival in Luanda, Angolan Carnival of victory! It's not like the Cuban or Brazilian I've seen before. There is, of course, something in common, but in General it is different. May be it stressed the African character? The incessant drumming?
...It was a hot December day in 1977. The first President of the country Agostinho Neto came to the residents of the capital's working quarter Kazenga. Here in the years of struggle against the colonialists he was hiding in the reeds — "zanzarah". Talking with old comrades, the President suggested:
— Why don't we remember the African holidays, where the keepers of our folk traditions could transfer their skills to the youth, devote them to the magic of song and dance? The time has come to revive the tradition of carnivals, so that all sixteen peoples of Angola can show their culture, the origins of which lie in ancient times. This holiday we will call the Carnival of victory and will hold it annually on the day when the last soldier of the South African invaders was expelled from Angolan land...
...Powerful speakers carried over the city a popular melody to the words of Agostinho Neto "We will be back!"written by him in the prison cell of the fortress of são Paulo.
We will return to Angola,
to the hot ground,
to the Golden Sands of the coasts —
come back!..
To the sound of marimba,
the tunes kissani,
to dance
on the holiday of happiness —
come back!
However, each year the carnival is different. The repertoire of dance ensembles and the number of its participants are changing.
Here from the port area heard the call of the sound "musimu", for wind instruments from a huge seashell. To us approaching ensemble "Illya" — "Island." Here dance the inhabitants of a fishing village, spread out on a pointed sandy Cape at the entrance to the Bay. Long before the carnival, I read a lot in the Angolan Newspapers about the "Island". Experts claimed that in its structure the whole constellation of dancers who execute ritual dances of those times when in Angola there were no foreigners.
By the way, it is the fishermen of the island owes its name Luanda. In 1575, when the Portuguese Navigator Paulo Dias di Nova-ish anchored in a wide natural Harbor near a fishing village, sailors began to ask black fishermen what the name of the place was. The same, believing that strangers want to know who they were, replied: "MouseLand" that in the language of kimbundu meant "fishermen". Then, when the seizure of the country began, the colonialists changed it in their own way. So "mushiluanda" turned into "Luanda". About the same conquerors did when choosing the name of the country. The then ruler of the state of Ndongo was Ngola Kiluanji. In kimbundu, it means "king of Kiluanji." The Portuguese, adding an article to the word, began to pronounce "Ngola" as "Angola". This name they called their colony.

Ahead of the ensemble selflessly dancing "prima ballerina." Her neck, wrists and ankles are braided with a whole web of threads, humiliated by small shells "zimbu", which in ancient times were very highly valued in the Kingdom of Ndongo. Small — the size of a coffee bean-bright colors shells like pearls. Their fishing with great danger to life in ancient times engaged in the most beautiful girls. Of each hundred of the "Zimba", sixty were sent to king Ngola, thirty went to the General Treasury of the Council of elders of the island, and only ten went to the brave divers.
Whether because I read all this in advance, but rather because the pantomime performed by the dancers "Illya" is very alive, but the whole story passes before my eyes. The bodies of the divers wriggle, here they hand over the catch to the elders, here the shells in the baskets are carried to the king...

Life of Angola before the arrival of the Portuguese.

The audience repeats the movements of the dancers, animatedly commenting on what is happening, imperceptibly moving from Portuguese to the language of kimbundu.

About two o'clock in the afternoon, when hot air was transparent and blue sky swam the first few clouds, on a broad road leading from the quarter Ramiel, went to the waterfront ensemble "Wave Kwanzaa". Magic frenzy, it seemed, penetrated into the bodies of the dancers. I was particularly interested in the performance of this ensemble. I have long been a fan of his and more than once attended rehearsals, met with many artists. Naturally, I became interested in the history of this team. For the first time, it was in 1964, the ensemble performed the song "Kasange". It was composed by the Director and Director of the ensemble Manuel Felipe Fernandes. She was dedicated to the victims of the massacre of the Portuguese over the cotton growers of the valley Kasanzhe. The head of the local police post banned "Kasange" and ordered to disperse the group. But in the evenings in clay huts again sounded sad song about folk heroes. Denounced by a traitor singers arrested. Some were beaten with ramrods, others were sent to forced labor in the area of the Kwanza river. Here they were forced to build a fortified Fort in the very place where once sheltered from the colonizers national heroine Nzinga Mbandi, daughter of king Kiluanji. There the group was called "Waves of Kwanzaa", and the patroness of the ensemble proclaimed the legendary Queen.
Traveling around the country, I have noticed that, driving up to the bridge over Kwanza, Angolan drivers always stop to admire the river. It is unlikely that the country can find another place so connected with the nature and history of Angola. Kwanza for Angolans is the same as Volga for Russians. In honor of her named the current national coin of Angola, the two most important economically province of the country — North and South Kwanza.

The dance, which is a group of "Waves Kwanzaa", tells of the struggle of the Queen Nzinga.
One legend says that the Queen of Nzinga Mbandi lived in the upper reaches of Kwanza. Her father was the greatest warrior and the leader of the people bamundo. From the heights of the mountain ranges Matamba Kiluanji and his soldiers descended down the river Kwanza and in the port of Tambo after fierce battles defeated the Portuguese troops. The first victory in the history of Angola.
After the death Kiluanji power passed into the hands of Nzinga. The wise Queen knew the danger her people faced if the tribal leaders continued to fight among themselves. She made the first attempt in the history of Africa to unite the people, to put an end to tribal strife. She succeeded. Hearing about the power of a Queen, it began to come warriors from other tribes and nationalities.

And yet the forces were clearly unequal, as the Portuguese were in possession of firearms, and the soldiers Singi — spears and bows. The struggle lasted forty years. Army Singi did not give the colonists the rest. When the Portuguese finally surrounded her army, the brave Queen rushed to avoid falling into the hands of the enemy, into the abyss. In the town of Pongo to Andong, I saw a huge boulder with a depression that is similar to the trace of a human foot. My companions claimed it was the trail of Queen Nzinga Mbandi...
The sun is already setting and the carnival procession seems inexhaustible. On the heads of the ensemble "Workers' and peasants 'Union" from the area of Golfe I saw "mazamba" — hats woven from sisal ropes. On the top of the head were skillfully attached torches.
Beat the drums: cylindrical "of clumping", "mukobela", "kenwyne", "the Tsonga-kikongo", made from the trunks of trees and covered with antelope skin. Drums nationalities LUN-da-chokwe — with a double bottom. They have a slightly muffled sound.
Singing strings "to Junsu" that is similar to the balalaika. Only its resonant bowl is made not of wood, but of a huge pumpkin. It masterfully plays the famous singer Paulo Castro nationality of ovimbundu. Go musicians gerero and ovambo, in their hands, "MBU-lumbum" — something like a hunting bow with several strings of stems "elephant" grass.
Applause was met and we spent "marimberos" from the province of Malanje. "Marimba" is a curved xylophone made of bast, mahogany boards and dried pumpkin. The number of keys is the most diverse. The famous marimba "of jiggas" from the town of Kalandula consisted of twenty keys, each of them were hung little bells ringing.
Suddenly struck copper military brass orchestra. Round the bend first appeared a column of red-blush Angolan members of the Komsomol — members of the youth organization of the MPLA — Party of labour, then clear ranks marched the militia of national defense. It was only after them that dancers in the form of soldiers of the people's liberation army of Angola appeared in front of the Central tribune.
— Heroes of Kifangondo,— talking around.
...The village of Kifangondo, located two dozen kilometers from Luanda, all in bloom. Their tart smell is mixed with the aroma of herbs, shrubs, flowers. Where a narrow path runs down to the river, a modest obelisk is installed. It is a monument to the fallen fighters. Every year on November 11 at its foot lie bouquets, intertwined with ribbons in the colors of the national flag. It was here that the soldiers of the people's armed forces of liberated Angola stopped the invaders rushing to the capital.
The Land Of Kifangondo. The famous hill, which still shows traces of fighting six years ago, In the first month of spring, which begins in the southern hemisphere in September, after tropical rains, the hill is covered with colorful herbs. In winter, the dry rustle of burnt Savannah makes the hill harsh, impregnable.
Illuminated by the bright sun, below us shines a white stone city. The huge buildings are reflected in the blue of the Bay. Froze on the roads ocean-going ships. Seagulls float slowly in the air off the coast, their wings spread a little. On the nearby highway endless string of cars are. But when you look at the time-destroyed trenches and fortifications on the hill, you hear the distant roar of the sea, before the eyes involuntarily float vision of the recent past. The first time I visited this hill was in January 1976, when there were still warped armored cars and guns, and the ground was littered with spent shells.
It was from here, from the banks of the river Bengo, began the offensive of the people's army in the Northern direction.
According to the calculations of the Angolans, for the final attack on Luanda, the enemy had to concentrate their forces on this site. And kifangondo hill is an ideal place for defense.
The battle began on 23 October 1975 and ended only on 11 November.
On 10 November, the enemy made a desperate attempt to dislodge the Angolans from positions on the Kifangondo hill.
The operation was led by Santos de Carlos, Colonel of the Portuguese army, who knew the area. From the documents captured later by the operations division, it became known that Santos intended to cross the river Bengo and capture a complex of structures that provide Luanda with water.
The battle began about 5 o'clock in the morning. Enemy interceptor fighters began firing air—to-ground missiles at positions. The enemy, having long-range 130 - and 140-mm guns, fired direct fire, covering the advance of their troops. Until noon, the Angolan artillery did not respond, allowing the infantry of the interventionists to reach almost the line of defensive positions.
Command ordered to open fire only after the main forces of the opponent will concentrate on a bend of the highway shot by gunners of FAPLA — national army. On a small hill located on the other side of the road, relocated battery recoilless guns. The enemy continued the offensive in open formation under the cover of armored vehicles, which were Portuguese mercenaries. As soon as the first platoon hit the firing sector, a volley sounded, and the armored car blazed. Then another armored car was hit. The infantry slowed their advance and then stopped. At this point, the guards hit mortars. The enemy had nowhere to hide from their powerful fire. And swim across the river Bengo crossed units...
On 11 November, the independence of the people's Republic of Angola was proclaimed, and the remnants of the defeated puppets, South African and Zaire invaders fled in panic.
Maybe it was during the battle of MPLA soldiers and bakongo, and ovimbundu, and mamboundou, and chokwe, kwanyana and — Herero felt above all Angolans, sons of the same Motherland, which is one path and one goal...
And the ensemble "Heroes of Kifangondo" music and dancing reminded all who gathered on the waterfront of Luanda about these heroic days.

Around the world / May 1982


 Until next time, @r3benok 

 Author's photo of the iPhone 6S+   

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