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Jute production and jute seed conservation in Bangladesh.

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Jute is the main cash crop of Bangladesh. 5-6 percent of Bangladesh's foreign exchange is earned by exporting jute and jute products. Besides, jute is no longer limited to making sacks, sacks or carpets. Jute is now being used in many ways. Adequate quantity of high quality seeds is an essential ingredient for jute production. Bangladesh currently needs about 5,000 to 6,000 metric tons of jute and kenaf seeds every year during the production season. Only 8-10% of these required seeds are supplied by BADC. The rest of the seeds are produced by the farmers from the local market or from the neighbors or on their own initiative. In most cases the seeds produced by the farmer are not of proper quality. This is because the correct technique and method of harvesting jute seeds at the farmer level is not traditionally developed. Therefore, if the seeds produced by the farmer brothers on their own initiative are not stored in an improved manner, then on the one hand the quality of the seeds produced will be poor and on the other hand there is a risk of wastage of seeds. Therefore, after harvesting the seed crop at the right time, it is very important to store and store it in an improved manner. In addition, if the moisture content of the seed increases, germination capacity can be easily lost, diseased insects, spiders and rats can easily destroy the seed and in case of loss of seed crop due to natural calamity, it is necessary to store the seed as emergency stock.

In general, when the jute and kenaf seed crops are over-ripe in the land, especially the tosha fruit bursts and the seeds fall off. And if it is less ripe, there is a risk of seed germination. Therefore, in case of seed harvesting, it should be kept in mind that if 60-70% of the fruits turn brown, the crop should be collected by cutting the roots of the tree. It should be noted that the ripening time of a tree also varies depending on the sap of one part of the land. In that case, if necessary, if you harvest twice, all the seeds are good. Dry days should be chosen for cutting trees with ripe fruits. It is better not to cut trees with ripe fruits on rainy days. Seed crop should be collected by excluding dead and dry trees in the land during harvesting. If dead and diseased plants are cut at the same time, all seed diseases can be infected by germs. In the case of seed crops, quality is more important than quantity of seeds. Therefore, before storing the seeds, the collected seeds should be thoroughly cleaned if there are any tree stalks, fruit peels, soil particles, cheetah or semi-nutritious or diseased seeds and other wastes.

Jute and kenaf seeds should be stored after threshing the seeds from the tree, drying well in full sun for 5/6 days in a row. Every day the seeds should be cooled and covered well with polythene, sack or triple at night so that they do not get wet in fog or rain. The seeds must be dried on a triple or sackcloth. Otherwise important part of the seed i.e. embryo may be damaged. After drying well, if you press the dried seed between the two teeth, if the seed breaks by cutting, then it should be understood that the seed has dried well. Seed moisture is usually around 8-9 percent after drying. Seed moisture can also be measured by purchasing a low cost moisture meter or by visiting the nearest agricultural office. If the humidity is high, the dormancy of the seeds will be reduced and storage will be impaired and the quality of the seeds will be poor.

In our country, the number of small farmers is more, their seed quantity is less. For that you can store the seeds in airtight containers like tin cans, plastic cans, plastic drums etc. One thing to keep in mind at all times is that no air can enter the jute seed storage container in any way. Seeds in small quantities should never be placed in large drums or containers. Moisture in the empty part of the pot can degrade the quality of the seeds. If the quantity of seeds is high, it can be kept in plastic or tin drums. One thing to keep in mind is that air cannot enter the jute seed storage container in any way.
If airtight containers are not available, seeds can be kept in earthen jars, pots or pots. However, before placing the seeds in these pots, the earthen jars, pots or pots should be coated with tar or paint or before placing the seeds, the pots should be well covered with thick polythene so that the earthen pot is airtight.

At the right humidity, at normal temperature, the seeds are stored in a lemophyl bag for up to 3 years. Seeds stored in airtight plastic or tin containers last up to 2 years. Other containers such as thin polythene bags, cloth / sack or paper bags or stored directly in earthenware containers are good for 3-4 months.

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