Hello to all the community, odontogenesis or dental development, is the process of multiplication and differentiation of epithelial cells, in the different tissues of dental formation, this is done within each of the jaws, and are divided into two groups: the temporary or primary and permanent and definitive.
How do they develop? They develop from epithelial differentiation, that is, the epithelial cell is transformed into the different tissues that make up a tooth.
We can divide this process into germinative layers or dental laminae and they are called:
The ectodermal epithelium: transforms or differentiates into what will become the dental enamel.
The ectomesenchymal epithelium: transforms into the more complex tissues such as dentin, cementum, periodontal ligament, pulp and alveolar bone.
How are these lamellae formed? When we are in the embryonic stage, the cells of the most superficial layer, called basal cells, multiply and form what we call the primary girdle, and it is within these girdles where a kind of sack will form, 20 equal ones divided into 10 superior and 10 inferior.
At the same time there is another vestibular layer that is directed towards the front, towards the face of the embryo and divides the lips and the buccal cavity.
Thus the primitive tooth or bud is formed and the first to form are the lower incisors, from the 10th week of gestation, the cells multiply and form what we call primitive pulp, in the 14th week the divisions are faster then they are grouped to form the enamel, called the cap stage, this cell is called odontoblasts.
Then all the odontoblasts fuse, forming a bell-shaped structure, and the process of mineralization of the enamel begins, the formation of primary dentin, then of the dental pulp and finally, the formation of the dental root forming the dental follicle.
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