[History]: Old world ships. Part V

13 days ago

 Hi friends!

Today is the final post describing historical ships from around the world. I hope you enjoyed your little trip back in time;)

[Photo 1]: The French Galley "La Reale"

The name "La real" means that the galley belonged to the king, and since 1526 such ships were at the same time the flagship of the galley fleet of France. When the king was on Board, the galley carried the Royal standard and the Admiral's flag. The most complete, completed version of this type of vessel probably existed as early as the beginning of the XVII century. Decorative design of the galley "La Re-al" of the second half of the XVII century was made by the French sculptor P. Puget. At the Maritime Museum in Paris saved the fragments of the stern decorations and a model of the ship. "La real" was an impressive ship with a length of about 52 m, width of 6.4 m. It was 31 a couple of cans (instead of one jar were placed the galley). Each paddle with a length of about 15 m of rowing and seven people, all of the rowers was 427. In the bow of the galley installed bronze guns: one 36-pound, two 24-pound and two 18-pound. In addition, six more guns were placed on each side. On the crossing the sea was used in two large Latin sails. Without wind and in the battle switched to the paddle.

[Photo 2]:French Battleship "Soleil Royal"

In the second half of the XVII century, a "Report Card on the ranks of ships" was developed and adopted in all Maritime powers of the world, according to which, depending on the displacement, the main dimensions, weapons and crew size, all ships were divided into six ranks. Decisive for the ranking of the ship to a certain rank was the number of guns. An example of a ship of the 1st rank can serve as a three-gun 120-gun "Soley Royal", built in 1690. This type of vessel, called in accordance with the then tactics of warfare at sea "ship to fight in the line", at the beginning of the XVIII century becomes the main for the fleets of all countries. Its dimensions were close to the data "ranking": length 55 m, width 15.5 m, deepening of the hold of 6.7 m. the Crew of 875. In its decorative decoration, firepower and driving performance "Soley Royal" for a long time was considered the best among the battleships of the fleets of the leading Maritime powers of the world.

[Photo 3]:Spanish Caravel "Nina"

The name " Nina "(Spanish – baby), apparently, the nickname of Caravella, her real name"Santa Clara". It was the favorite ship of X. Columbus, the only one that participated in the first two of his expeditions, and then, in 1499, went to the island of Haiti on their own.

The postcard depicts one of the three ships of X. Columbus, who participated in his first expedition to the shores of America. The ship was built in Spain in 1475. After the death of "Santa MA-RII" on the reefs near the island of Haiti X. Columbus raised his flag on the "ninya". Obviously, the original is the ship belonged to the small caravels, all three masts were on the slant of the sail (caravella latina). Latin sail on slanting aloft allowed these ships to go cool to the wind. During the expedition X. Columbus made a stop on the Canary Islands, and on the fork - and grotto-masts "Ninya" oblique sails replaced straight, the same as on the third ship of his squadron Caravelle "Pint". Information about the dimensions of the "Ninya" (as well as the other two ships) are contradictory. One of the variants: length 17,3 m, width 5,5 m, draft 1,9 m, displacement 101,2 t (load capacity 60 t). The crew of 40 people. Armament consisted of a few guns of small calibre.

[Photo 4]: French Military Vessel " La Coronne"

The postcard depicts one of the best ships of France of the XVII century. Built in 1636, it remained the prototype of a good sailing vessel for 200 years. The hull of the ship is made of oak, and the construction tried to shape the trunk of the tree corresponded to the shape of a particular part of the ship (for example, stem) and, consequently, the bending of the fibers corresponded to its bending, which gave the details of extreme strength. On average, about 2,000 well-dried oaks were required to build the hull of such a vessel. The greatest length of the ship is 70 meters, waterline length of 50.7 m, a maximum width of 9.3 m, height to the upper deck of 10.5 m, a displacement of 2100 tons To three decks was 72 guns of various calibers. The height of the main mast from keel to klotik is 57.6 m. the total area of the sails is about 1000 m*2. The crew of 638 people.

[Photo 5]: English Military Ship, "Henry grace a Dew"

In June 1514 in Volvich (England) by order of king Henry VIII was built a warship "Henry grace e'due" ("King Henry by the grace of God"), abbreviated "Harry", or "great Harry". This ship is rich in character, apparently, had a clinker cladding (nacrog). Covering boards were fastened with wooden pins – pins, and connections overlapping was prokladyvalas copper rivets. The length of the main deck is about 50 m, the keel is 38 m, the maximum width is about 12.5 m, the displacement is 1500 ha.184 cannons were installed on the ship, 43 of them are of large caliber. The front two masts carried three straight sails, the other two had Latin sails, and the bowsprit had a blind and a BOM blind. The crew of 351 people, including 50 gunners. In addition, 349 soldiers were on Board. In 1535 - 1536 the ship was rebuilt, 122 guns were installed on it and named karakka. In August 1553, "Henry grace e'due" went to the Parking lot in Volvich and suddenly a fire (from the overturned candle) burned.

[Photo 6]: English Galleon "Golden Hind"

The ship was built in the 60s of the XVI century in England and was originally called "Pelican". On it, the English Explorer, Drake, together with four other ships, undertook a pirate expedition to the West Indies in 1577-1580, and made a second (after Magellan) voyage around the world. In memory of the fact that he managed to get away from the chase of the Spaniards, and to note the excellent quality of his ship, Drake renamed it the "Golden deer" and set the bow of the ship decoration of pure gold – a figure of a graceful fallow deer.

Galleon length 18.3 m, width 5,8 m, draft 2.45 m, capacity 100-150 GRT. Perhaps it was one of the smallest gallions. In XVI-XVII centuries such vessels formed the basis of fleets of Spanish, British and French. The displacement of the largest Spanish Galleons reached 1000 tons or more, 50 m long (37 m on the keel), width of 12 m. On two gun-decks was located 50-80 guns.

[Photo 7]: English Ship "Mary Rose"

"Mary rose" - one of the largest and most powerful warships of king Henry VIII. The four-masted karakka with a displacement of 700 tons was built in 1536. Three solid decks (which was at that time a novelty) was a powerful siege artillery – 39 large and 53 small guns designed for naval combat. However, the ship died without a fight in the Harbor. 11 (21) July* 1545 the English fleet was preparing to exit from Portsmouth to meet the approaching British to the French. After the rise of Broseley the ship suddenly began to tilt, then to starboard and in two minutes sank, although the sea was calm and the wind moderate. The cause of the disaster-poor stability of the vessel due to overload artillery. Of the 700 sailors and marine soldiers on Board, only 40 survived.

In 1982 the ship in parts up to the surface. After its restoration, it was decided to create a Museum to exhibit the Mary rose caracca and a collection of items raised with it.

[Photo 8]: Venetian Carrack

The Venetian karakka of the beginning of XVI century had a length of 30 m, width of 10 m, height of a Board of 6,5 m, loading capacity more than 600 t and four masts. In the src-the first mast and the main mast was square rigged, the second the mainmast, and bizani – oblique. On the masts were installed large site – Mars to embed crossbowmen and shooters of firearms. To facilitate the management of the vessel, the wiring of standing and running rigging was improved, the cables are equipped with dents (steps of the rope ladder), first appeared on the ships of the Northern countries. The crew of about 100 people.


 Until next time, @r3benok

 Author's photo of the iPhone 6 S+

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