[History]: Old world ships. Part IV

3 months ago

 Hi friends! 

Who are interested in old models of ships, come to visit! And we continue to consider with you the historical ships from different countries.

 Old world ships. Part I 

 Old world ships. Part II 

 Old world ships. Part III 

In pictures ship for trading and military purposes - Flemish Carrack

In the first half of the XV century the largest vessel used for military and commercial purposes was the karakka. It had developed superstructures in the bow and stern, up to four decks and three to five masts. The covering was carried out smooth, the sides were rounded and slightly bent inside. Such boards to some extent made it difficult to Board. Flemish Carrack (mid XVI century) in the fore - and main masts carried sail direct and additionally Marseille and bisani – slanting sail. Its length is about 35.8 m, width 5.7 m, draft 4.1 m, load capacity 537 t. crew 86 people. On the trading karakaj was set to 10-12 guns, military – 30-40. The numbers are average. The size of these ships was different

I really like the galley of this form. This Venetian Single-Masted Galley

Galley-a typical military rowing vessel during the XVII-XVIII centuries. She had a low freeboard, passing in the bow in a narrow long RAM. The length of the galleys of 41.6 m, a maximum width of 5.2 m, average draught 1.5 m displacement 180-200 t Crew of 225. The vessel had 23 (sometimes 24 or 25) cans (seats) from each side. On one Bank was placed on three rowers (138 in total), each of them worked as one paddle. Oars passed through the slots I oar ports) bulwark designed to protect rowers and crossbowmen, three oars through each port (in the figure for simplicity shows one oar). In the bow and stern of the galley housed several guns. The battle began at a distance with the use of guns and throwing machines and ended with boarding. The galley was equipped with one mast with a height of 27 m with Latin sail and the stern rudder. Large canopies from the sun allowed to use the deck for the rest of the rowers.

In pictures Spanish shebeka

The picture shows a Spanish shebeka. The length of the vessel was 40.5 m, width 10.5 m, draft 3.8.". Small shebeke called polucheniem.

Cebeci – sailing and rowing a three-masted vessels with fore-and-aft sails, used in the middle ages in the Mediterranean for war and transport purposes. They installed up to 40 oars and 30-40, sometimes 50 small caliber guns. The oar ports were located between the cannons. A narrow long body with a wide collapse of the sides in the bow provided shebeke good seaworthiness. By design, these ships were close to the caravels, but surpassed them in speed and weapons, why are often used by pirates.

Another very beautiful gallery - the Venetian galley "Bucentaur»

A luxurious two-deck rowing ceremonial vessel on which the head of state – Doge annually on the feast of the ascension made a solemn ceremony symbolizing the betrothal of the powerful Republic of Venice with the Adriatic sea. "Bucentaur" accompanied by numerous rowing boats went out into the lagoon, the Doge threw a Golden ring into the water and uttered the ritual words: "About the sea, with you I am engaged as a sign of constant and eternal dominion over you." This ceremony was first performed, probably in 998 and existed until the end of the XVIII century. Every hundred years they built a new " Bucentaur»; the latter was destroyed by Napoleon's soldiers in 1798. The model of this galley is kept in the Maritime Museum in Milan. The ship had a length of 35.2 m, width 7.5 m, 21 pair of oars with a length of 10.6 m and 168 oarsmen (on each paddle for 4 people).

Now the historic ship from Holland is the Dutch Flute

The first flute was built in 1595 in the city of Hoorn, the centre of shipbuilding in Holland, in the Bay Zeyder-se. The length of these ships is 4-6 times or more than their width, which allowed them to sail already pretty cool to the wind. For the first time in the rigging were introduced invented in 1570 stengi. The height of the masts now exceeded the length of the ship, and the Rei, on the contrary, began to make shortened. So there were small, narrow and easy to maintain sails, which reduced the total number of the top team. Sail fore - and main masts consisted of Fock and mainsail and the relevant Marsala, and later on large flutes and Broseley. On the mizzen-mast above the usual oblique sails raised direct sail, cruiser. On the bowsprit put a rectangular sail blind, sometimes BOM-blind. The flute first appeared, the steering wheel, which facilitated the relocation of the steering wheel. Flutes early XVII century had a length of about 40 m, a width of about 6.5 m, draft 3-3.5 m,capacity 350-400 t. for self-defense they installed 10-20 guns. The crew consisted of 60-65 people. These vessels were distinguished by good seaworthiness, high speed and large capacity and therefore were used mainly as military transport. During the XVI-XVIII centuries the flute has held a dominant position on all the seas.

Fast forward a little to old France. Before you French galley " La Farm»

French shipbuilders of the XVII century in addition to the galleys "La real" mastered the construction of another type of rowing vessels – "La Farms", which had smaller main dimensions. Their maximum length was 44-46. 7 m, maximum width 5.5-5.8 m with an average draught of 1.5-1.6 m.Oblique sails on three masts with a total area of 850 to 1150 m *2 and the ratio of the width of the ship to its length 1:8 provided galleys of the "La Ferme" type with increased speed and maneuverability both when sailing and on oars. 180 rowers were placed on 36 banks, 18 on each side. Each paddle 15-meter length had 5 rowers. Galley, shown in the figure, was built in 1691. According to the decor, it was significantly inferior to "La real".

Another French ship, French Pinus

At the beginning of the XVII century in the North of Europe there was a new type of ship – pinass, somewhat resembling a flute, but significantly different from it less concave frames and flat stern. The front part of the ship ended with an almost rectangular transverse bulkhead, extending in height from the deck to the deck. This form of the front of the ship existed until the beginning of the XVIII century. Pines was the length to 44 m, had three masts and bowsprit powerful. The main and fore-masts raised direct sails on the mizzen-mast and the mizzen on her, cruisel, and on the bowsprit – blind and flying blind. Displacement of pinasco 150-800 T. they were Intended mainly for trading purposes.

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 Until next time, @r3benok

 Author's photo of the iPhone 6 S+ 


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Это серия моих любимых кораблей;)