[History]: Old world ships. Part II

17 days ago

 Hi friends!

We continue to consider with you interesting ships that were created and used by our ancestors. They gave impetus to the development of navigation in the broad sense of the word;)

 Old world ships. Part I

Before you Swedish Shnyava

Very beautiful ship! Shnyava-a small commercial or military sailing ship, similar to the brig. In XVII-XVIII centuries it was spread in England, France and Sweden. Snows carried two masts with square sails, a bowsprit, staysail and jib. On the aft side of the mainmast, next to it, put the stenga, rested on the upper end of the rear edge of the mainmast-Mars. The topmast was used for the production of the slanting sails of bizani (snavely), similar kontrolisane large vessels. The length of the shnyava was 20-30 m, width 5-7. 5 m, displacement of about 150 tons, crew up to 80 people. Military Navy 12-18 were armed with small caliber guns and used for reconnaissance and messenger service.

Another Swedish ship is the Swedish Caravel

In the late XV – mid-XVI century in Sweden built ships called caravels, although their sailing rig is a little like the Russian ship of this type. On the Swedish Caravelle (1560) there were three masts: the main and the fore - masts carried two straight sails, the mizzen-mast-two oblique. Under the bowsprit was the blind. The height of the fore-mast from the keel is 27.5 m. the Total area of the sails is 680 m *2. The length of the ship is 32.8 m, width 7.5 m depth 3.6 m, load capacity 450 BRT. Armament consisted of 20 guns. The crew of 86 people and 100 soldiers of the marine corps.

This is another Caravel, but Portuguese. It is called The great Portuguese Caravel

Our ideas of great geographical discoveries are inextricably linked with the romantic name of these ships. Salient features of the caravels were high-sided, deep sheer of the deck in the middle part of the vessel and the presence of add-ins in the bow and stern. Large caravels ("caravella redonda", Spanish" redonda " – direct sail) only on the fore-mast carried the direct sails of the fore - and for-Marseille. Latin sails were installed on the other masts, which allowed these ships to walk steeply to the wind. Displacement of large caravels were 200-400 so the deck was installed 16-22 guns.

Beautiful ship, Venetian Galeas. I really like him very much!

At the end of the XIII century in the North of Italy, mainly on the Islands of the Adriatic sea, formed an oligarchic Venetian trade Republic with a large territory under its control. By the beginning of the XVI century Venice had a large commercial and strong military fleet. Venetian shipbuilders created in the XVI century a new type of sailing and rowing warship-galeas. Its length was 47 m, width 8 m, Board height 3.2 m, draft about 3 m.  The crew included the captain, 3 assistant captain, 2 pilot, 4 naval officers, boatswain, boatswain assistant, priest, 62 sailors, 7 workers, 250 rowers (5 people on the paddle, 25 oars on each side), 4 army officers, 254 soldiers and Bombardier. Artillery weapons up to 70 guns of various calibers. Galasy built two - and three-masted. The figure shows a three-masted galleas of 1669. For the first time these vessels were used by the Venetians during the Cyprus war in a major naval battle on 7 (15) October 1571 at Lepanto (Greece). Their use was one of the reasons for the victory of the United fleet of the Holy League over the Turks.

This ship is rightly called the "Lord of the seas" - the English Warship " Sovereign of the Sea»

This vessel with a displacement of 1530 tons was built in England in 1637 and for the first time in the history of shipbuilding had three battery decks. Its construction required 4000 pine trunks. Relics of the ship were true to their name "Lord of the seas": on the decks was 104 guns. Its dimensions were also impressive: the length of the keel 38.7 m, the gun deck 52.7 m, the maximum length 71 m, width 14.2 m, depth of the hold 5.9 m, maximum draught 6.75 m.  The ship was repeatedly reconstructed and changed his appearance: was reduced aft of the superstructure, a cropped tank and aft Polupanova, a significant change in the rigging, removed the fourth, the so-called Bonaventure-mast. The total area of sail was subjected to further crushing to the fourth tier-BOM Bram Rei. The ship was rich in decoration, and it is considered a model of a warship of the XVII century.

Another great English ship - English Bark "Endeavour"

In 1762 in England was built the ship "Earl of Pembroke" for transportation of coal. In preparation for the expedition D. cook in 1768, it was converted and called "endeavour". Sailing rig of the vessel was consistent with a typical boat of the XVIII century. FokI mainmast had two steggy and bore a direct sail on the mizzen mast raised contrbuting and cruiser, and on the bowsprit except for the headsail and jib raised the blind, and flying blind. The area of all sails was 700 m *2, and the speed of the barque with a fair wind reached 8 knots. The vessel had the maximum length of 36 m, maximum width of 9.2 m, cargo capacity of 370 BRT and a small draft. It was ugly, but strong and seaworthy. 10 guns and 12 mortars were his weapons. In the years 1768-1771 D. cook has committed to "Endeavour" on his first circumnavigation.


 Until next time, @r3benok

 Author's photo of the iPhone 6 S+ 

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