Agriculture in Bangladesh is still dependent on human and livestock, traditional farm equipment and tools. In the last three decades, due to mechanization of land cultivation and irrigation, the density of crops has increased to 193 percent. Due to the increase in crop density, the time between two crops i.e. harvesting of one crop and preparation of land for another crop is reduced. For ages, the farmers of our country have been cutting the paddy in the field with the help of their hands with a scythe. But the efficiency of cutting paddy with a sickle is very low and it requires a lot of labor to cut paddy. If the paddy is not harvested at the specified time, the mature paddy is often affected by natural calamities in the field, or the amount of damage increases due to over-ripening in the field. Apart from this, it is not possible to harvest paddy in time as the shortage of labor is evident in the rice harvesting season in the country. Sometimes the whole crop is ruined due to lack of labor and natural calamities. For this reason, harvesting is being considered as the main problem of agriculture in Bangladesh. As a result, the farmer has to spend extra money to cut the paddy and the farmer is being deprived of his desired profit due to increase in production cost. Cutting can be done through successful practical use of combine harvester, reaper, reaper binder etc. The types of combine harvesters used in China, Japan, South Korea and other developed countries are so large in size that it is difficult for us to operate on small plots of land. In addition, it is very difficult to move equipment from one plot to another due to lack of roads in the field for movement of machinery and our country is basically made up of soil polyp (aluvial type) so heavy heavy machinery cannot be driven for a long time.
In order to overcome these problems, the Department of Farm Machinery and Post-Harvest Technology of Bangladesh Rice Research Institute has developed a Head Feed Mini Combine Harvester for harvesting paddy and wheat in line with the socio-economic conditions of the country. And the straw stays whole. The machine can operate in clay with a hard layer (plow-pan) 15-20 cm deep in the soil. The machine can harvest more paddy and wheat in less time, which reduces post-harvest waste and reduces overall production cost. Moreover, it is possible to save the crop from the damage of natural calamities by cutting the crop at the right time. As a result the farmer benefits financially and the productivity of agriculture increases.
It is a diesel-powered machine that can cut, thresh, thresh and pack rice and wheat at the same time. The four main tasks of harvesting (cutting, threshing, sifting and packing) can be done simultaneously, hence the name of the machine is Combine Harvester. Rice and wheat can be harvested in less time and at a lower cost than with traditional scissors. As a result time and manual labor are reduced. The machine can be used for harvesting crops that are roughly the same height and have the top of the sheaf / rhyme tree and the rest at the bottom. They are - rice, wheat, jab, barley etc.
Combine harvesters are generally of head feed and hole feed.
In head feed combine harvester only paddy sheaf is threshed and straw is not wasted. This device is useful for keeping the straw in the dry field during the aman season.
Whole feed combine harvesters, on the other hand, thresh the whole paddy and the threshed straw falls randomly on the ground which cannot be properly stored for future use. In Boro and Aus seasons, if there is water in the paddy field and in the haor area, this device is useful.
The four main tasks of harvesting with a combine harvester are done simultaneously. For this reason, if one job is not combined with another job, the efficiency of the device is not good. Shaking during transport can cause problems with any part of the instrument. Before the machine enters the field, the engine must be started by keeping the gear in neutral position, placing sandbags or other heavy objects on the grain collector's part and moving the header up and down. The type needs to be checked to see if unusual sounds are coming. Then the header controller lever should be adjusted by inserting the instrument in the field and moving the header with the height of the grain. It is necessary to prepare the harvest by cutting a small amount of grain and seeing the threshing and sifting activities of the machine. Preparation for cutting depends on the size of the plot, grain density and soil conditions. The main work of harvesting should be started by observing threshing and threshing activities. The efficiency and cutting cost of the machine depends on the skill of the driver and the proper operation of the machine.
Things to do while running
Combine harvester is a technology based on knowledge. Since the four main tasks of harvesting are done simultaneously, the operator must have a preliminary idea about the work of the main parts of the machine and the coordination with the other parts. The device cannot be operated by a driver who does not have a basic idea about the device. The amount and quality of grain loss depends on the optimal use of the machine.