Bacteria are the most diverse unicellular organisms in the world. Bacteria can live in contact with all multicellular
organisms, even in the intracellular region. Most of them are beneficial and essential for the organism and the environment. Beneficial bacteria living in the epidermis and intracellular regions of the plant body are called plant probiotic bacteria.
These bacteria help in the growth and development of plants in many ways. Their use increases grain yields and improves product quality. Crop production costs can be greatly reduced by using these beneficial bacteria derived from the local environment as an alternative to expensive chemical fertilizers as microbial fertilizers or plant enhancers. Their use reduces the incidence of diseases in plants. The use of these precious ‘organic golds’ extracted from nature is conducive to the production of sustainable and environmentally friendly crops.
Requirements for commercial use of probiotic bacteria
By 2050, the world's population will have grown to about 960 million. For the food and nutrition security of this growing population, food production needs to increase by 80-100 percent. Pesticides are also used in large quantities of artificial chemical fertilizers in crop production. However, the increasing use of chemicals in agriculture is endangering the environment, which is an obstacle to sustainable agricultural production and safe food security. The use of chemical fertilizers in paddy and other crops in Bangladesh is about 5 million metric tons every year. Among them, more than 50 per cent urea and almost all phosphate and potash fertilizers are imported from abroad. As a result, on the one hand, the cost of crop production is increasing, on the other hand, a lot of foreign exchange is being spent on the import of fertilizers. In this case, probiotic bacteria could be a potential alternative sustainable technology, which would greatly reduce the use of chemical fertilizers.
At present, the use of this technology in developed countries is increasing significantly in crop production. The current market value of probiotic bacterial fertilizers and pesticides in agriculture in the world is more than USD 200 crore. Therefore, it is very important to use the beneficial probiotic bacteria known as 'organic gold' derived from the environment of Bangladesh, which is rich in biodiversity, in crop production as an alternative to chemical fertilizers.
Plants are a source of probiotic bacteria
Plant probiotic bacteria are usually of two types. One. The exterior of the various organs of the plant, and II. Probiotic bacteria present inside the cell membranes of plants. Bacteria that live in plant tissues are collected separately from the intracellular tissues of different parts of the plant.
Strategies for extracting probiotic bacteria from nature
Probiotic Bacteria Isolation and Selection: These are usually isolated from different parts of the plant by microorganisms in the laboratory. Potentially beneficial bacteria are selected by testing the bacteria for their various functions such as: atmospheric nitrogen addition, potassium and phosphate dissolution, plant hormone production, etc. The beneficial efficacy of bacteria is primarily ensured based on the creation of transparent zones by dissolving compounds containing color indicators and insoluble nutrients through precise cultivation.
Plant Probiotic Bacterial Identification: A variety of routine bacteriological tests such as physical, physiological and biochemical tests and gene sequencing are performed to identify a species. Regular testing confirms their commercial use by determining their color, shape, margin, height, solubility area, optical density, biofilm making, gram staining, production of various enzymes and starch, use of organic acids and antibiotic production capacity. Their species is also identified by a thorough analysis of life secrets.
Benefits of probiotic bacteria
Plant probiotic bacteria benefit plants in many ways (1) adding nitrogen from the air to help plant nutrition; (2) Assistance in the absorption of plants by dissolving organic and inorganic insoluble essential nutrients present in the soil; (3) Accelerates the growth and development of plants by releasing various chemicals such as plant hormones (auxin, gibberellin, etc.) and other growth factors.
They also secrete various enzymes and secondary chemical metabolic products (such as antibiotics) to protect plants from disease. It is important to note that they also play an important role in the expression of plant genes and increase the plant's ability to withstand organic and inorganic shocks.